levothyroxine (Total 21677 Papers Found)

Thyroid hormone is important in the regulation of synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary, but its role in the control of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is controversial. To determine whether thyroid hormone regulates the function of TRH in the hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular system, a study was made of the effect of hypothyroidism on thyrotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA (proTRH mRNA) and TRH prohormone in the rat paraventri ...
Plasma thyroxine (T4) of a freshwater female perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch) has been measured by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Monitoring of plasma T4 throughout the year showed that July to early September (spawning stage) had the highest T4 and late September to January (postspawning stage) had the lowest T4. The plasma T4 cycle was coincident with the ovarian cycle. Treatment of intact perch with salmon gonadotropin (SG-G100) or ovine LH (500 ng/100 g body wt) markedly enhanced plasma T4 ...
Postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (Clinovir) in dosages between 500 and 1500 mg orally per day. The relation of MPA plasma concentrations and endocrine effects were studied in a longitudinal fashion. MPA exerted suppressive effects on the basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulated gonadotropin secretion, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and estradiol (E2) in a dose-dependent manner leading to a comple ...
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congener ...
Demand for bariatric surgery has risen exponentially and bariatric patients often have multiple indications for post-operative pharmacotherapy. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the published literature examining the effect of bariatric surgery on drug absorption. Studies were sought through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry and hand searches of reference lists. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Twenty-six studies ...
Deficits or excesses of thyroid hormones during critical periods of mammalian cerebellar development can lead to profound biochemical and morphological abnormalities in this system. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of perinatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the ontogeny of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its low-affinity receptor (p75NGFR) in the rat cerebellum. The concentration of NGF and of p75NGFR immunoreactivity (IR) were measured, several days after birth, in cerebella o ...
The thyroid hormone, 3,3,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), modulates several physiological processes, including cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation, via interactions with thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. Infection and inflammation are critical processes in placental development and pregnancy-related diseases. In particular, infection is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, t ...
The practice of general paediatricians in the initial evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) was assessed. This was performed by a questionnaire survey of paediatricians in East Anglia of whom 84% responded. Nineteen of 25 clinicians based in seven district hospitals managed children with CHT. The median number of children in the care of each clinician was 4 (range 1-17) and the median number of children attending each hospital was 12 (range 5-23). All except one clinician arranged to con ...
OBJECTIVE To explore the mechanism of Jiaweiyiguanjian decoction in nourishing the liver and kidney. METHOD A rat model with Yin-deficiency of liver and kidney was made by way of slow irritation. Thyrotropin-releasing-hormone(TRH) of thyron and blood, TSH of pituitary and blood, thyroxine, 3,5,3',5-tetraiodothyronine(FT4) and 3,3',5-traiodothyronine(FT4), 3,3',5-traiodothyronine(rT3) were used as indexes to study the effect of the decoction on HPT. RESULT The TRH Secretion from hypothalamus ...
The effects of thyroxine (T4) treatment of rats on the neuronal and extraneuronal uptake and subsequent metabolism of catecholamines in the heart were examined, to determine whether changes in the local dissipation of catecholamines might contribute to the enhanced sympathetic cardiac responses that occur when thyroid hormone levels are elevated. T4-treated rats were injected subcutaneously with L-thyroxine sodium 1 mg kg(-1) on days 1, 3 and 5, and controls were injected with the normal saline ...
Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an auto inflammatory disease[1] and also it can occur together with autoimmune disorders, such as Behçet's syndrome and systemic Lupus erythematosus[2,3]. Here, we present Familial Mediterranean fever and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis association in a 10-year-old girl. This girl was admitted to our hospital with a history of intermittent abdominal pain, fever, headache and chest pain. Her complaints have been recurring two or three times every month lasting 4-5 ...
DRIED THYROID SUBSTANCE or the pure natural hormoue s, L-thyroxin and L-triiodothyronine, effect a reduction in the serum total cholesterol of euthyroid individuals when administered in sufficient allmount.1-3 Their general clinical use to reduce elevated serum cholesterol levels in the hope of favorably influencing the course of atherosclerosis has been limited by two factors. When given in moderate dosage, dried thyroid substance effected a prompt reduction in serum cholesterol, but despite co ...
Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) is a procedure performed by a wide array of healthcare providers for the treatment of osteoarthritis as well as inflammatory arthritis. Although the adverse psychiatric effects of oral or parental corticosteroids are well recognized, the psychiatric effects following IACI are not routinely considered. We report here a case of a patient with dramatic psychiatric disturbances following temporally separated IACIs. To our knowledge, this is the first r ...
We recently showed that thyroxine sulfate (T4S) and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine sulfate (T3S) were major thyroid hormone metabolites in ovine fetuses and neonates. To further characterize the sulfation pathway in ovine fetuses, we measured 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3S) in serum and other body fluids in samples obtained from fetal (n = 23, 94-145 days of gestational age, term = 150 days), newborn (n = 6), and adult (n = 6) sheep. In addition, T3S, T4S, and rT3S levels were measured in tissue fluids ...
Although thyroid abnormalities are reported with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, patients rarely require replacement therapy. The initial multicentre studies of sunitinib for metastatic renal cancer did not report hypothyroidism in fatigued patients, and thyroid tests were not routinely monitored. More recent studies, however, suggest that up to 70% of patients develop thyroid test abnormalities during treatment with sunitinib. Despite these concerns, the clinical relevance of sunitinib- ...
Circulating autoantibodies to thyroid hormones are occasionally detected and may cause confusion, because symptoms and signs are inconsistent with the measured thyroid hormone values. We present a 5 1/2 year old girl with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and false high concentrations of free thyroxine and total triiodothyronine. ...
Administration of the anti-inflammatory drug fenclofenac (600 mg bd) for 28 days to four females with thyrotoxicosis resulted in a rapid decline in thyroid hormone levels. The mean total thyroxine (T4) level of 173 +/- 8.6 (SEM) nmol/l before therapy was normalized to 70 +/- 6.4 nmol/l after administration of the drug for 7 days. Free T4 levels also decreased significantly but not to within the reference range in all subjects. Mean total triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 levels declined from ...
Very little is known regarding hormonal adaptation in human subjects who are exposed to the extremes of temperature and light that are found in polar latitudes. We have previously reported a 50% elevation in the serum thyrotropin (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a fall in serum total triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 (fT3), and no change in serum total thyroxine (T4) or free T4 (fT4) after 42 wk of Antarctic cold exposure. To differentiate between central and peripheral mec ...
The development of hypothyroidism following combined treatment for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer has received little attention in the literature. We prospectively studied 32 patients over 4 years to determine the incidence of such hypothyroidism and to examine the effect of hemithyroidectomy associated with a combined treatment modality. All patients were men with pharyngeal or laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and no prior history of thyroid disease. Treatment consisted of radical surgery (3 ...
THE effects of oestrogen on intra-thyroidal iodine metabolism have been widely investigated1–3, but very little is known about its influence on the excretion of iodine in urine. In thyroidectomized castrated male rats on a daily maintenance dose of dl-thyroxine there is some indication that 50 µg of œstradiol benzoate daily for one week causes a slight retention of radioiodine1. Feldman3 has observed a decreased renal clearance of iodine-131 in both castrated and hypophysectomized rats recei ...
Male Wistar rats were injected ip with 0 or 20 mg/kg 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl and blood samples were collected 1, 3, 6, 7, and 8 d later. At 8 d after the injection, serum retinol was increased 30% and serum thyroxine was decreased 26% relative to control values. These effects were apparently unrelated to transthyretin in that the biphenyl did not alter the proportion of thyroxine binding in vitro to the prealbumin fraction of serum proteins. Separate groups of control and HBBP-injected ...
A 40-year-old man developed dyspepsia, watery diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease was confirmed [free thyroxine, 87 pmol/L (normal range, 8.6-27 pmol/L)]. Bile acid malabsorption was demonstrated by a low 23-selena-25-homocholyltauric acid retention of 7.1% (normal, > 15%). Antithyroid treatment (carbimazole and propranolol) was instituted, and his diarrhea subsided with the control of hyperthyroidism (free thyroxine, 15 pmol/L) along with ...
Ectopy of the thyroid gland means its incorrect location most often along the midline of the body from the foramen cecum to the mediastinum, usually in the dorsum of the tongue. In 75% of patients, the lingual thyroid is the only active thyroid tissue. ectopic thyroid is frequently incidentally diagnosed in patients without symptoms of hypothyroidism. The authors present four patients with lingual location of the thyroid treated due to congenital hypothyroidism. in two of them, an ultrasound exa ...
Clusters of luminal dense bodies, limited by a triple-layered membrane, were found in all follicle lumina in thyroid glands of mice. After thyroxine treatment the number of luminal dense bodies increased, especially in the periphery of the lumen, where the intraluminal bodies often displayed a striking resemblance to microvilli. In hyperplastic goiters, obtained by feeding mice with propylthiouracil, luminal dense bodies were replaced by intraluminal vesicles. During goiter involution the vesicl ...
CONTEXT Nodular goiter is common worldwide, but there is still debate over the medical treatment. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was the measurement of the effect of a treatment with (nonsuppressive) T(4), iodine, or a combination of both compared with placebo on volume of thyroid nodules and thyroid. DESIGN This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial in patients with nodular goiter in Germany [LISA (Levothyroxin und Iodid in der Strumatherapie Als Mono-oder Kombinationsther ...
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive marker for detection of metastatic disease in patients who have been operated on for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A high serum Tg value during thyroxine suppression therapy is indicative of metastatic disease, but the sensitivity is enhanced by the endogenous TSH response occurring when thyroxine medication is withheld. False-negative values before thyroxine withdrawal can be demonstrated in about 20% of the patients in our material. If not all thyroid tiss ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "[Manifestation of adrenal insufficiency after administration of levothyroxine in a patient with polyglangular autoimmune syndrome type II (Schmidt-syndrome)]." by Ali C Canbay et al. ...
OBJECTIVE To analyze the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in different BMI categories and its impact on the classification of hypothyroidism. METHODS The study included 3,928 individuals free of thyroid disease (without previous thyroid disease, no interfering medications, TSH <10 µUI/mL and thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO Abs] <50 IU/mL) who participated in a national, cross-sectional, population-based study and were representative of the adult population of Spai ...
The effects of exogenous administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues or of a partly purified salmon gonadotropin extract (GTH) on the duration of steroid and thyroid hormone levels were determined in female and male sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, tested under differing temperature and reproductive status. Plasma estradiol levels, but not androgens, were significantly elevated in response to the GnRH analogues or GTH injection compared to controls in female and male lampr ...
BACKGROUND Animal studies suggest that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) may impair thyroid function. Epidemiological findings, mostly related to adults, are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES We investigated whether concentrations of PFAAs were associated with thyroid function among 10,725 children (1-17 years of age) living near a Teflon manufacturing facility in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA). METHO ...
The goal of the present investigation was to analyze the types 2 (D2) and 3 (D3) iodothyronine deiodinases in various structures within the central nervous system (CNS) in response to iodine deficiency. After 5-6 wk of low-iodine diet (LID) or LID + 2 microg potassium iodide/ml (LID + KI; control), rats' brains were processed for in situ hybridization histochemistry for D2 and D3 mRNA or dissected, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and processed for D2 and D3 activities. LID did not affect weight gain ...
Triploid fishes generally show sterility along with retarded gonadal development and aneuploid gametes. In teleosts, thyroid hormones influence seasonal adaptations and annual events such as reproduction. In addition, thyroid hormone deposition in matured ova is important for reproductive success as the role of thyroid hormones in early development and metamorphosis is well established. The present study deals with measurements of free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the pl ...
Three thyroid-function detection methods were evaluated concomitantly for possible application as routine screening tests for the early diagnosis of neonatal hypothyroidism. Dried capillary-blood thyroxine (T4) was measured on eluted filter-paper discs for 9734 3-5-day old neonates. Serum T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (T.S.H.) assays from cord blood were studied as alternative screening tests on 4911 and 3733 infants, respectively. To avoid false-negative results, neonatal blood-T4 and cord ...
The heptapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide-1 (GHRP-1), one of a series of recently synthesized small growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptides, was administered as an iv bolus (1 microgram/kg) to 15 (six prepubertal, nine pubertal) short but healthy children and adolescents and to eight juvenile patients with pituitary insufficiency (four with isolated growth hormone deficiency, two with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies, one with partial GH deficiency and one with GH-releasing hormone ...
The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cat ...
The physiology of the thyroid gland and the basic principles underlying diagnostic tests have been outlined, and need to be understood if diseases of the thyroid are to be managed efficiently. In the choice of therapy for the thyrotoxic patient, consideration should be given to such features as safety, convenience, age, available skill and economics as well as the more obvious factors fo gland size, pressure effects and potential malignancy. Non toxic goitre is often a physiological process, and ...
A protein that binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) with high specificity has been detected in normal rabbit serum. Scatchard plots revealed the protein to have a principal binding site with both high capacity and high affinity for tetrac (KA 4.8 X 10(10) M-1. Binding of tetrac by the protein is partially inhibited by barbital. During polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.0, the tetrac binding protein has a mobility characteristic of a prealbumin. As judged from competitive binding stud ...
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is characterized by decreased tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone, due mainly to mutation of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene. It has been reported that serum of patients with RTH lacks autoantibodies against thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), except in rare cases where there is co-occurrence of coincidental autoimmune thyroiditis. Here we describe the five-year medical history of a Japanese woman and her father with RTH and coinc ...
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to determine and compare the efficacy and hormonal and metabolic effects of 1.25 mg with 2.5 mg of gestrinone given twice a week in the treatment of mild and moderate pelvic endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN A phase II, prospective, randomized, double-blind study involving 11 patients given gestrinone 1.25 mg (five patients) or 2.5 mg (six patients) orally twice a week for 24 weeks was performed. Revised American Fertility Society scores were determined by laparoscopy befor ...
Treatment of hypophysectomized or intact neotenic tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum) with ovine prolactin (PRL) increased sensitivity of the ovary to the ovulation-inducing hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone (LH). Effects of pretreatment in vivo with PRL or thyroxine (T4) on the responsiveness of ovarian fragments in vitro to ovulation-inducing agents, LH, or progesterone (PROG) in the presence or absence of PRL were observed. In November (prior to normal sp ...
Studies with L-[(125)l] triiodothyronine and L-[(125)l] thyroxine, and with equilibrium dialysis of plasma proteins indicate that rat pituitary binds L-triiodothyronine 9.8 times as strongly as it does L-thyroxine. Injection of even small doses of nonradioactive L-triiodothyronine reduces the pituitary/ plasma ratio of radioactive L-triiodothyronine, an indication of the existence of pituitary binding sites with a limited capacity for L-triiodothyronine. Limited capacity binding sites for L-thyr ...
PURPOSE: Study of thyroid function in Hodgkin's disease patients in complete remission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined the thyroid function of 160 Hodgkin's disease patients in complete remission for at least one year, and determined the values of supersensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3) hormones. RESULTS: Normal values were observed in 117 patients, subclinical change (only elevated sTSH) in 28 patients, clinical hypothyroidism in 14 patients (also low ...