Thiamine (Total 14394 Papers Found)

Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of a patient with Wernicke encephalopathy were obtained during routine MR examination. Mammillary bodies were hyperintense on T2-weighted and enhanced on T1-weighted images; on DWI, a mild hyperintensity was noticed. Calculation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) demonstrated an increased diffusion on the affected regions; the hyperintensity on DWI was probably due to a "T2-shine-through" effect. These findings are consistent with the presence of extracel ...
Tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPP II) is a large (Mr>10(6)) tripeptide-releasing enzyme with an active site of the subtilisin-type. Compared with other subtilases, TPP II has a 200 amino-acid insertion between the catalytic Asp44 and His264 residues, and is active as an oligomeric complex. This study demonstrates that the insert is important for the formation of the active high-molecular mass complex. A recombinant human TPP II and a murine TPP II were found to display different complex-forming c ...
Our results show that a net synthesis of thiamine triphosphate (TTP) can be demonstrated in vitro using rat brain extracts. The total homogenate was preincubated with thiamine or its diphosphate derivative (TDP), centrifuged, and washed twice. With TDP (1 mM) as substrate, a 10-fold increase in TTP content was observed in this fraction (nuclear fraction, membrane vesicles). A smaller, but significant, increase was observed in the P2 fraction (mitochondrial/synaptosomal fraction). In view of the ...
The transport of thiamine across the intestine has been characterized in rats but has not been adequately studied in humans. To determine the kinetics of thiamine intestinal transport directly in humans, mucosal tissues were obtained during routine endoscopy from normal-appearing sites at the second portion of the duodenum. With 3H-dextran as the marker of adherent volume, the uptake of 14C-thiamine hydrochloride by the excised mucosa was measured in vitro. By this method thiamine uptake was lin ...
Two approaches and direct isotopic assay were employed to examine the time course of permeability and duration of action of tissue thiaminase I injected parenterally to albino mice. The injected enzyme was found to be detectable in renal and hepatic tissues 3 hours later. The action of the enzyme dermally injected in a dose of 1.2 IU/kg in the same tissues lasted 4 days. Experimental findings led to the conclusion that the thiamine degradation enzyme may be used in experimental biology in order ...
OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of variable-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) combined with herbal-moxa moxibustion for regional neuralgia in herpes zoster (HZ) patients. METHODS A total of 37 cases of HZ outpatients were randomized into treatment group (18 cases) and medication group (19 cases). For patients of the treatment group, EA (100 Hz for the 1st 10 min, then 2 Hz for 30 min) plus herbal-moxa roll (15 cm in length, containing components of corydalis tuber, astraga ...
Phosphoketolases (PKs) are large thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzymes playing key roles in a number of essential pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. The putative PK genes of Lactococcus lactis (Ll) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (Lm) were cloned in a prokaryotic vector, and the encoded proteins were expressed and purified yielding high purity proteins termed PK-Ll and PK-Lm, respectively. Similarly, the PK gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed, and the corresponding protein (PK- ...
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses were measured in normal-hearing adult ears over frequencies from 0.7 to 8 kHz, and analyzed with reflectance/admittance data to measure absorbed sound power and the tympanometric peak pressure (TPP). The mean TPP was close to ambient. TEOAEs were measured in the ear canal at ambient pressure, TPP, and fixed air pressures from 150 to -200 daPa. Both click and chirp stimuli were used to elicit TEOAEs, in which the incident sound pressure le ...
OBJECTIVES To demonstrate that fatigue and other disorders related to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the manifestation of an intracellular mild thiamine deficiency and not due to malabsorbtion, augmented requirements, or nutritional factors, and that this dysfunction is curable with high doses of thiamine administered orally or parenterally. DESIGN In this pilot study, we treated fatigue in eight patients with ulcerative colitis and four patients affected by Crohn's disease from Ja ...
A radioassay was developed for estimation of the thiamin diphosphate kinase activity (EC 2.7.4.15); 14C-TDP was used as a substrate. After termination of the reaction (formation of TTP), the products obtained were separated using ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex C-25. The method developed was very sensitive and enabled to estimate the enzymatic activity in tissue homogenates. TDP-kinase was isolated from rat liver with a 70-fold purification. Dependence of the reaction rate on pH value ...
Background/Objectives:We examined the association between 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese university students. The design used was cross-sectional study.Subjects/Methods:A total of 216 healthy, free-living male and female Japanese university students aged 18–27 years voluntarily participated in this study, of which 156 students were eligible for this assessment. All foods consumed for 4 consecutive days were recorded accurately b ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the dietary patterns in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER). MATERIAL AND METHODS A nutrition survey (food intake recall for three consecutive days) was carried out on 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD and under treatment with MPH-ER, and in 150 healthy children (control group). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compar ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). G ...
A liquid-chromatographicmethod for determining the total thiamin content of blood is presented. Blood is deproteinized and incubatedwith Aspergillus oryzae carboxyl proteinase(EC 3.4.23.6;Takadiastase) toconvertthiamin phosphate estersto free thiamin.An aliquotofthesample is appliedto the column (Shodex OH-Pak M-4 14) of a high-performance liquidchromatograph. A 100 mg/L solutionof potassium ferricyanidein 150 g/L sodium hydroxideisadded tothecolumn effluent with a proportioning pump, toconvertt ...
Thiamine deficiency (TD) leads to Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE), in which focal histological lesions occur in periventricular areas of the brain. Recently, impaired neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus during the dietary form of TD, and in pyrithiamine-induced TD (PTD), a well-characterized model of WE. To further characterize the consequences of PTD on neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) activity, we have examined the effect of this treatment in the rat on both the subventricular ...
Photophobia is a subjective discomfort to light, varying from mild to intolerable pain, which can be associated with disorders of the anterior eye segment, or intracranial diseases [1]. Although the exact pathophysiology remains obscure, an interaction between the trigeminal nociceptive pathway and the visual system at various brain and ocular levels is accepted [1, 2]. A possible involvement of pulvinar has been recently considered, since it receives both second-order trigeminal neurons project ...
In a comparative slaughter experiment the thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid content of lean tissue of foreloin of growing cattle was determined by whole body analyses. 54 bulls, 45 heifers and 45 steers were fed until a live mass of 200 kg, 350 kg, 425 kg (only heifers) 500 kg and 575 kg, 650 kg, respectively (only bulls and steers). One half of each carcass was divided into 13 cuts and afterwards the cuts were each divided into lean, adipose and bone tissue and tendons. The lean tissue o ...
Primary spontaneous down-beat nystagmus (PDBN) is characterized by slow upward ocular drifts and fast downward phases, and is the most common form of acquired ocular movements overcoming fixation. PDBN is essentially due to lesions at the cranio-cervical junction, or diseases of the lower brainstem and cerebellum. Intoxication due to lithium or anti-epileptic drugs, abuse of toluene, and metabolic disturbances such vitamin B1, B12 deficiency, have also been reported. Hypomagnesemia has rarely be ...
A 4175-bp EcoRI fragment of DNA that encodes the alpha and beta chains of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) component (E1) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus has been cloned in Escherichia coli. Its nucleotide sequence was determined. Open reading frames (pdhA, pdhB) corresponding to the E1 alpha subunit (368 amino acids, Mr 41,312, without the initiating methionine residue) and E1 beta subunit (324 amino acids, Mr 35,306, without the initiating ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of seasonal changes on household food availability on the nutritional status of preschool children from rural households. DESIGN Households with preschool children were randomly selected from a sampling frame developed from a census list. Data were collected each month or at intervals for 14 months using pre-coded questionnaires. SETTING The study was carried out in Njoro division, Nakuru district, Kenya. SUBJECTS Subjects comprised 41 preschool children ...
Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequenc ...
OBJECTIVE Hemodialysis patients are prone to malnutrition because of diet or many uremic complications. The objective of this study is to determine whether thiamine deficiency is associated with regular dialysis patients. METHODS To determine whether thiamine deficiency is associated with regular dialysis patients, we measured thiamine in 100 patients undergoing consecutive dialysis. RESULTS Average thiamine levels were not low in both pre-hemodialysis (50.1 ± 75.9 ng/mL; normal range 24 - ...
BACKGROUND Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTRBGD) is a neurometabolic autosomal recessive (AR) disorder characterized by subacute encephalopathy with confusion, convulsions, dysarthria, and dystonia. The disease is completely reversible if treated early with biotin and thiamine, and can be fatal if left untreated.We herein present our experience with in an extended family study of an index case of BTRBGD aiming to support its AR mode of inheritance, diagnose asymptomatic and m ...
The effects of thiamin on the tissue distribution of lead were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 1000 ppm lead acetate in drinking water and treated daily with thiamin (25 or 50 mg kg-1 body weight, i.p.), calcium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (50 mg kg-1 body weight, i.p.) or their combination for 8 weeks. The subtoxic dose of lead did not alter weight gains, feed and water consumption during the treatment period. Thiamin decreased the blood (P less than 0.0001), liver (P less than ...
With 17 million Americans reporting heavy drinking (5 or more drinks on 5 different occasions in the last month) and 1.7 million hospital discharges in 2006 containing at least 1 alcohol-related diagnosis, it would be hard to imagine a hospitalist who does not encounter patients with alcohol abuse. Estimates from studies looking at the number of risky drinkers among medical inpatients vary widely—2% to 60%— with more detailed studies suggesting 17% to 25% prevalence. Yet despite the large nu ...
The concentration of thiamine (vitamin B1) was measured in blood cells and plasma from mothers with normal pregnancy and from mothers whose pregnancy was complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Thiamine concentrations were estimated by the thiochrome method using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection according to Weber et al. (2). During normal pregnancies the thiamine values in blood cells fall in the 28th to the 39th week of gestation from 230 nmol/l to 170 nmol/l. In cases ...
BACKGROUND Genital warts (GW) are common and increasing in young people. Ninety percent of GW are due to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and management costs associated with GW in Spain. METHODS A 1-year (2005) retrospective observational study was performed among a sample of gynaecologists, dermatologists and urologists in six autonomous regions in Spain. Men and women with newly diagnosed, recurrent or resistant GW were in ...
A cDNA clone demonstrating a high degree of homology to the thiamine repressed nmt1 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe was isolated from the aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus. The deduced polypeptide of a cDNA clone from A. parasiticus had an amino acid sequence identity of 60% with that of the nmt1 gene of S. pombe. Transcription of the nmt1 gene homolog in the fungus was strongly inhibited by concentrations of thiamine of 2.0 microM or higher. ...
Histochemical studies on the distribution of TPPase and G6PD in the neurons of locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal vagal nucleus (DVN) of rats have been conducted by using the TPPase method, the G6PD method, karyometry, and statistics under normal conditions. 1. Neurons of the LC and DVN may undergo phasic changes of the GOLGI apparatus (GA) under normal condition. 2. No significant difference was found between neurons of the LC and DVN in regard to the GA morphology, but in general the latter revea ...
It is well known that thiaminase which destroys thiamine is distributed in the viscera of fresh-water fish, shellfish and ferns, and produced by some microorganisms. Recently, thiaminase ‡U, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamine, was purified and crystallized by Kimura et al. (1) and Ikehata (2). The purification of thiaminase ‡T, which catalyzes a transfer reaction in the presence of a basic substance, was attempted by Reddy et al. (3), Agren (4), Kuratani (5), Nose et al. (6), and Yok ...
BACKGROUND The neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia is the result of frataxin deficiency. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) cofactor biogenesis, but its functional role in this pathway is debated. This is due to the interconnectivity of iron metabolic and oxidative stress response pathways that make distinguishing primary effects of frataxin deficiency challenging. Since Fe-S cluster assembly is conserved, frataxin overexpression phenotypes in a ...